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Surface Treatment

E 100.IGM
High Speed Laser Metal Depositon HSLMD
In the field of laser metal deposition (LMD) the focus diameter of the powder gas stream of a coaxial powder nozzle is not only important for the powder efficiency but also for cladding with high velocity in a range above 50 metres per minute.

Consequently a high powder density is necessary to achieve the desired result. Therefore a new coaxial powder nozzle with a powder gas stream of less than 400?m is developed. At the gantry machine in E100.IGM you can see a coaxial powder nozzle for high speed laser metal depoition in full swing.

Contact Person
Dipl.-Ing. Gerhard Backes
Phone +49 241 8906-410
Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT

E 100.TUR
Innovation Cluster TurPro
The Fraunhofer ILT works jointly with the Fraunhofer Institute for Production Technology IPT in the Innovation-Cluster »TurPro - Integrative Production Technology for Energy-Efficient Turbo-Engines« at effective and efficient manufacturing and repair concepts for innovative materials. Aim of the work is to develop an integrative process chain for manufacturing and repair processes of turbo-engine components. Part of the ILT is the repair and generation of stationary and flying turbo-engine components by laser cladding. Goals are the laser cladding of difficult and non-weldable superalloys and high-alloy steels, an increasing of the build-up rate for the generation of BLISKs by laser cladding and the development of a continuous process chain for the repair and generating process. For this purpose a demonstration cell, a Trumpf TLC 1005 5-axis laser cladding machine, has been installed. The demonstration shows the build-up of a damaged high-alloy steel turbine blade area by laser cladding, after the material of the damaged area was removed by milling.

Contact Person
Dr. Andres Gasser / Dipl.-Ing.Frank Mentzel
Phone +49 241 8906-209/-603
Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT

E 100.SLA
Laser Metal Deposition with Variable Track Width
During laser metal deposition laser spot sizes have to be changed in order to adapt the process to the component to be treated. Usually, for changing the laser spot size the working distance has to be changed. This means that the Tool Centre Point of the working machine has to be adapted, as well as the powder feeding nozzle distance. A more faster and efficient solution is demonstrated here by the usage of a zoom optic. The lens position can be changed via CNC control and therefore the beam size is varied at the working position. Changes of the beam size during the process are also possible. This enables the cladding of components where a variable spot size is required. In the demonstration a turbine blade tip geometry will be deposited by changing the width of the deposit from 0.6mm to about 2.5mm during the process.

Contact Person
Dipl.-Ing. Bernd Burbaum
Phone +49 241 8906-535
Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT

E 100.MB3
Local Heat Treatment of Hot-stamped Ultra-high-strength Steel Parts
Ultra-high-strength steels are widely used in the automotive industry. They allow a reduction of weight and improve crash-behaviour but they do have a reduced formability compared to deep drawing steels. A state of the art process for ultra-high-strength steel parts is hot-stamping of boron alloyed steels, producing fully martensitic microstructures in the final part. Although hot-stamped parts offer fair ultimate strain, higher ultimate strain may be required in critical zones to improve crash behaviour.

A way to increase ultimate strain in a desired zone is local softening by laser heat treatment. Non-treated areas retain their strength. The process is temperature controlled, using a fibre-coupled high-power diode laser with a maximum laser power of 10kW and an optics with a rectangular and even intensity distribution.

Contact Person

E 100.MLA
Micro Cladding with Dimensions below 100?m
Due to the miniaturization of products and the need for an economical and ecological use of natural resources, there is an increasing market demand for processes which allow the repair and the selective functionalization of micro parts. Applications can be found in many areas e.g. medical engineering, tool making and electrical industry. By laser cladding using fine powder small volumes below 100?m thickness can be deposited with a high precision. A key factor for the process is the constant powder feeding of powders with a particle size below 20?m.

Contact Person
Dipl.-Phys. Matthias Belting
Phone +49 241 8906-624
Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT

E 100.VF2
Multi-graded Layers by Laser Cladding for Wear and Corrosion Protection
Laser cladding offers the possibility to combine the advantages of different materials by building up graded material layer by layer. Opposed properties like ductility of the bulk volume in combination with high wear resistance at the surface can be achieved. Multi-layer laser cladding is a technology to produce metal based graded materials. The graded materials are formed in-situ layer by layer with a continuous change of composition of the powder formed additive materials in each layer. Coatings of several layers or bulk volumes can be produced in this way. E.g. wear resistance and fatigue strength require contra dictionary properties like high hardness and ductility which can be achieved by graded material. Potential applications for these materials are die-casting tools and injection moulds which are exposed to conditions like wear, corrosion and thermal cycling.

Contact Person
Dipl.-Ing. SörnOcylok
Phone +49 241 8906-567
Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT

Polishing with Laser Radiation
Polishing with laser radiation is a new method for the automated polishing of 3D surfaces. A thin surface layser is molten and the material flows from the peaks to the valleys. The process is under development for the polishing of tool steels, titanium alloys and glass. The main characteristics are
  • High level of automation
  • Short machining time especially in comparison to manual polishing
  • No pollutive impacts from grinding and polishing wastes and chemicals
  • Polishing of grained and micro-structured surfaces without damaging the structures
  • Generation of a user-definable and localized surface roughness
  • Small micro roughness as the surface solidifies out of the liquid phase
The machine technology as well as examples of laser polished parts from tool and mould making, medical engineering as well as optics will be shown. Progress has been especially achieved for the polishing of 3D surfaces.

Contact Person
Dr. Edgar Willenborg
Phone +49 241 8906-213
Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT

Powder Feeding Head for Inside Cladding
One key component for laser cladding is the powder feeding head which provides the powder and the shielding gas for the process. The main demands in industry are flexibility, robustness and high powder efficiency. The Fraunhofer ILT has developed various powder feeding heads for several industrial applications. This includes discrete and coaxial powder feed nozzles, a zoom optic which allows a flexible change of track width (together with Reis Lasertechnik) and processing heads with integrated optic and powder feeding for cladding of inner surfaces (together with Pallas Oberflächentechnik). The design allows the cladding of inner surfaces starting from either 25mm or 50mm diameter upwards. In this demonstration the inside cladding of tubes will be shown.

Contact Person
Dipl.-Ing. Stefan Jung
Phone +49 241 8906-409
Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT

Structuring of Design Surfaces by Laser Remelting
The surface of a part or product strongly influences its properties and functions, like abrasion resistance, haptics as well as the visual impression. Therefore, many plastic parts have structured surfaces such as leather textures on car dashboards. Usually these structures are manufactured in the injection mould by photochemical etching which is a time consuming and expensive process. A totally new approach to structuring metallic surfaces with laser radiation is structuring by remelting. In this process no material is removed but reallocated while molten. The innovation of structuring by remelting is the totally new active principle (remelting) in comparison to the conventional structuring by photochemical etching or the structuring by laser ablation (removal). The advantages of structuring by laser remelting are up to 10 times shorter processing times compared to laser ablation, the avoidance of post processing steps and the possibility of totally new surface appearances with multiple gloss levels.

Contact Person
Dipl.-Phys. Andre Temmler
Phone +49 241 8906-299
Fraunhofer Institute for Laser Technology ILT
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